Date: Late tenth century
The geographer, al-Muqaddasi (or al-Maqdisi, d. 991) reports that the mosque of al-Rafiqa was located in the market of the goldsmiths (al-sāgha). Al-Rafiqa was the new city built in the late eighth century to the west of the existing settlement of al-Raqqa (ancient Kallinikos). See also: Silversmith; Inlayer of metalwork; Engraver of seal rings.
Citation: Stefan Heidemann, “The history of the industrial and commercial area of ʿAbbāsid al-Raqqa, called al-Raqqa al-Muḥtariqa”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 69.1 (2006), p. 46.
Citing: Shams al-Din AbuʿAbdallah al-Muqaddasi, Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālim, ed. M. de Goeje, second edition (Leiden: Brill, 1906, reprinted 1967), p. 137.