Date: c. 1671

The Venetian traveller, Ambrosio Bembo (d. 1705), found that during a festival called the Zina, all businesses and shops were closed with the exception of those of the Goldsmiths in the principal bazaar. He also noted … read more


Date: 1374

Sultan al-Ashraf Shaʿban (r. 1363-77) ordered the governor of Syria, Baydamur, to send to Cairo numerous items including brocade, embroidery, gold and silver needles, ornamented … read more


Date: Late tenth century

The geographer, al-Muqaddasi (or al-Maqdisi, d. 991) reports that the mosque of al-Rafiqa was located in the market of the goldsmiths (al-sāgha). Al-Rafiqa was the new city built in the late eighth century to the west of the existing settlement of al-Raqqa … read more